HIV-positive myths continue to exist in society that promote discriminatory treatment of people with a positive status. The reason of this is poor awareness, fear, distortion of facts and so on. However, it is important to note that any human rights violation with a positive HIV status leads to a worsening of the overall epidemic situation.
The manual of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) for HIV / AIDS parliamentarians, legislation and human rights noted: Lack of respect for human rights promotes and exacerbates the effects of this disease. At the same time, HIV is undermining progress in the realization of human rights. This link is manifested in the disproportionate incidence and spread of the disease among key at-risk populations, and in particular those living in poverty. This is also reflected in the fact that the low burden of low- and middle-income countries is the predominant burden of the epidemic. AIDS and poverty today are mutually reinforcing in many of these countries.
Human rights have a direct bearing on the fight against HIV in three key areas.
First, the lack of human rights protection creates vulnerability to HIV, especially among vulnerable sections of the population, such as women, children and youth; sex workers; drug users; migrants; men having sex with men (MSM); transgender people, as well as prisoners.
These groups are more vulnerable to HIV because they are unable to exercise their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. For example, people who are deprived of their right to freedom of association and access to information may be denied the opportunity to discuss HIV issues, participate in AIDS service activities of self-help organizations and self-help groups, and participate in other prevention activities protect yourself from HIV infection. Women, and especially young women, are more vulnerable to infection if they do not have access to the information, education and services needed to ensure sexual and reproductive health and prevention. People living in poverty often do not have access to the prevention and treatment of HIV, including antiretroviral drugs.
Second, the lack of human rights protection fosters stigma, discrimination and violence against people living with HIV. These perceptions are rooted in the misunderstanding of HIV, ways of transmitting HIV, and the "fears and prejudices surrounding sex, blood, disease, and death, as well as the understanding that HIV is associated with" deviant "or" immoral "behavior. like sex outside marriage, sex between men and drug use. "
The rights of people living with HIV are often violated because of their predicted or positive HIV status, causing them to suffer as a result of both the severity of the disease and the violation of their rights. Stigma and discrimination can interfere with their access to treatment and may affect their work, housing and other rights. This, in turn, contributes to the vulnerability of other infections because HIV-related stigma and discrimination prevents people with HIV and AIDS from receiving medical and social services. Therefore, those who are most in need of information, counseling and counseling do not benefit from this, even if such services are provided.
Thirdly, the lack of human rights protection impedes effective national measures to combat HIV. Discriminatory, coercive and punitive approaches increase the vulnerability to HIV infection and increase the impact of the epidemic on individuals, families, communities and countries.
- Ideologically motivated restrictions on information on HIV prevention, including safe sex and condom use;
- Criminalization of high-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and sex workers;
- Criminalization of HIV transmission;
- HIV testing without informed consent;
- Limited access to harm reduction measures, such as needle and syringe exchange and opioid replacement therapy;
- Limited access to opioids for palliative care;
- Immigration restrictions on HIV entry, stay and place of residence.
These measures keep people from address HIV services and limit organizations ability to access vulnerable and at-risk populations. Therefore, human rights are necessary to achieve universal access to comprehensive prevention, treatment and care services; to meet the rights and needs of the most vulnerable and vulnerable populations, and to provide voluntary, informed and evidence-based strategies, programs and practices.