Useful questions that will help you not get tuberculosis

In February 2020, 1,987 new cases of tuberculosis were officially registered in Ukraine. In total, 18 647 people were treated for tuberculosis as of February. It should be noted that 23% of tuberculosis cases in Ukraine are noticed too late. Not only does this affect the outcome and duration of treatment, it also contributes to the spread of the disease.

What is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease has a chronic course. The lungs of the patient (pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary tuberculosis) are most often affected, and in the case of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis other organs can be affected, in particular, bones, skin, brain membranes, nervous system, kidneys, liver and others.

How does tuberculosis spread and what causes it?

Tuberculosis spreads from person to person through the air, through the air-dropping mechanism of transmission. This is mainly when individuals with an active (open) form of tuberculosis cough, sneeze, or spit, causing mycobacteria to get into the air. To get infected, only a small number of tuberculosis sticks are enough. The highest risk of contracting the patient is from family members, colleagues or health care providers who have been in contact with a patient with open tuberculosis for a long time.

Tuberculosis pathogen is quite stable in the environment: it can withstand drying for up to several weeks, heating to 100 degrees Celsius for 5-7 minutes. The tuberculosis wand under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UFO) is destroyed.

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?

Symptoms of active (open) tuberculosis: persistent cough lasting more than 3 weeks; sputum contains traces of blood; chest pain; feeling of constant fatigue, weakness; loss of appetite; weight loss; night sweat (sweating); feverish 37-38 ° C or reduced temperature 35.5 ° C; chills; sensation of a laceration in the neck.

The course of the active phase of tuberculosis (open form) can be subacute (moderate) for many months. The dangerous consequence of such a subacute course of the disease is that the patients can delay the visit to the doctor, while at the same time spreading the bacterium to others, being contagious. People with active tuberculosis can infect from 5 to 15 people who are contacted during the year. Without appropriate treatment, about 45% of people without HIV-related immunodeficiency and almost all HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis die.

How is tuberculosis diagnosed?

In laboratory conditions, specimens of sputum from the lungs of the patient under a microscope determine whether mycobacterium tuberculosis is present. However, only half of tuberculosis cases can be recorded microscopically, and antibiotic resistance is not determined.

To diagnose tuberculosis, the following studies are also performed: fluorography (or radiological examination) of the chest; standard and specialized blood tests; laboratory examination of sputum of the patient; Mantoux test is a skin test for the presence of a specific immune response to mycobacterium tuberculosis by intra-cutaneous injection of tuberculin.

Is it possible to cure tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is a treatable disease. Active drug-sensitive tuberculosis is treated with a standard 6-month (sometimes up to 9-month) course of 4 antimicrobials. It is important to follow the whole course of treatment. Otherwise, there is a high probability that the tuberculosis infection will not be completely cured and will return soon. If tuberculosis is left untreated, then mycobacterium may become resistant to the previously used medications and, accordingly, will become insensitive to subsequent treatment.

Tuberculosis is an infection that develops very rapidly and progresses primarily in a weakened body with low resistance, a weak immune system. That is why it is important to keep in mind the simple tips on eating healthy, being physically active, and seeking medical help promptly. However, such "simple" tips can save lives and preserve your health, and if properly treated, tuberculosis can almost always be cured.

1300 units of test systems were transferred to military personnel in the area of ​​the Operation of the Joint Forces

On March 26, 2020, military doctors in the area of ​​the Operation of the Joint Forces received a parcel of humanitarian assistance, which included, among other things, tests for the detection of socially dangerous diseases, purchased by the International Institute for HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis.

This time, 1,300 multitest units were provided to the Ukrainian Armed Forces with the support of the DHAPP PEPFAR project for early diagnosis of HIV / AIDS.

It should be noted that According to the Order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine dated August 14, 2008 No. 402 (as amended) “On Approval of the Regulations on Military Medical Expertise in the Armed Forces of Ukraine”, when applying for military service (conscript or contract), candidates for military service pass compulsory HIV testing. Persons with HIV disease when drafted are recognized as unfit for military service.

However, servicemen (other than conscripts) who have acquired HIV infection during their military service may continue their service with the decision of the Military Medical Commission if recognized as eligible. Also, servicemen who became infected during the service and were found to be unfit for military service in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine (on Improving Some Issues of Passing by the Military Service) ”Given the opportunity to continue the service in certain positions, determined by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.

How to Confront COVID-19: Medical Advice for People Living with HIV

Experts from the Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine recommend that people living with HIV continue to receive HIV treatment. This is required to maintain immunity to fight coronavirus.

In addition, the tips remain the same as for the general public:

- wash your hands regularly with soap for 20-40 s, including before and after contact with animals;

- do not touch the hands, especially the eyes, mouth and nose;

- minimize contact with people and stay at home.

- wear a face mask in way that it covers your nose and mouth. Studies in the mazakazakh to assess measures that contribute to the prevention of the spread of respiratory infections, suggest that wearing masks may limit the spread of the virus.

Recall that researchers in China have tracked the state of nearly one and a half hundred carriers of coronavirus recovered, and found that their body continues to spread viral particles for about 20 days after the onset of symptoms.

What has changed in the treatment of HIV in Ukraine

In Ukraine, patients diagnosed with HIV are treated free of charge from the first day after the test and for life. However, the number of HIV patients in Ukraine has tripled in the last three years. And every second does not know about his diagnosis. These statistics demonstrate the worthlessness of previous efforts to combat the spread of HIV / AIDS in Ukraine.

Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine approved a new protocol for the treatment of HIV infected people last year, based on the standards of the World Health Organization for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus.

The basis of treatment in Ukraine will be a new drug called Dolutegravir. It is now recognized by the World Health Organization as the most effective and best treatment for HIV infection. It should be taken once a day and it is combined with other medicines. The cost of this drug is currently 5 UAH 40 kopecks a day.

According to experts, previously a person with HIV had to live from 7 to 9 years with the immunodeficiency virus, to try all treatment regimens, and only then was given the opportunity to try medicines, which will now become available immediately.

In addition, the diagnosis system has changed. Yes, doctors now do not need to carry out additional examinations of a patient with HIV, such as a lung X-ray, an ultrasound, a cardiogram of the heart, and others to prescribe treatment. Therefore, the patient will be able to start treatment faster.

It should be noted that Ukraine became the first country in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to adhere to this protocol.

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