We continue to distribute knowledge about hygiene!

Recently, the leadership of the NGO "International Institute for HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis" transferred to the Department of Restorative Treatment at the National Military Medical Clinical Center information playing cards for the collective promotion of hygienic knowledge and healthy lifestyle among the personnel of the military units (institutions) of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.  

Reference: according to the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 416-r dated 21.06.2017 and the Order of the Minister of Defense of Ukraine No. 128 dated 07.07.2017, the National Military Medical Clinical Center "Chief Military Clinical Hospital" has taken into operation the Sports and Health Complex from the economic management of the National Bank of Ukraine to the management of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.

On August 23 in 2017 with the participation of the President of Ukraine P.O. Poroshenko, on the basis of the mentioned complex, opened a department of restorative treatment of the National Military Medical Clinical Cente with new modern possibilities of rehabilitation and health improvement of patients.

The department includes: swimming pool, small hydrotherapy pool, gym, massage rooms, modern physiotherapy room and more.

Branch office: daily from 8.30 to 15.30, Friday to 14.30, Saturday and Sunday - day off.

For recovery retreatment (except for weekends and holidays), according to the medical indications, in this department are sent patients inpatient with diseases of the musculoskeletal system, neurological, psycho-neurological profiles.

Impressions for referral for regenerative treatment:

  • damage and disease of the peripheral nervous system in the recovering period (radiculopathy, cervical edema, thoracalogy, lumbalgia, ishiallgia, neuropathy);
  • injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in the recovering period (osteochondrosis, scoliosis, spondylosis, damage between vertebral discs, other dorsopathies);
  • post-traumatic stress disorder, neurosis; border mental disorders (syndrome of chronic fatigue, professional burnout);
  • adaptive neurotic disorders; somatoform mental disorders; states after acute reactive stress, depressive disorders.

Management of the International Institute of HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis wishes to all the good health!

Facts about tuberculosis

Tuberculosis can be treated!

Do you know that: 

  • Anyone can contract tuberculosis! 
  • Tuberculosis can be treated! 
  • It is impermissible to self-diagnose tuberculosis and self-treat it! 
  • If you have at least one tuberculosis symptom, address the doctor immediately! 

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. It is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) called Koch's bacillus.

What is multi-drug resistant tuberculosis?

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis or MRD-TB is a form of tuberculosis resistant to at least two most effective antituberculosis drugs. These are isoniazid and rifampicin. It means that these antibiotics will not be effective in killing the bacteria.

Main symptoms of the disease: 

  • cough lasting over 2 weeks; 
  • increased body temperature for more than 7 days; 
  • respiratory distress; 
  • pain in the chest; 
  • poor appetite, constant tenderness; 
  • groundless weight loss; 
  • increased perspiration, especially at night; 
  • blood spitting (presence of blood in sputum released by coughing) 

Why is tuberculosis dangerous?

A healthy person can contract tuberculosis by breathing in the drops of moisture containing MBT that are released by a patient with a contagious form of tuberculosis while coughing, sneezing, or talking. Most often, respiratory organs are impaired.

At first, the course of the disease is nonmanifest and people often do not pay attention to continuous feeling sick or try to treat “cold” and “a cough” by themselves. Therefore, treatment of such patients starts late and demands more time and efforts.

Early detection and right treatment result in a person stopping to release MBT into the environment and infecting others.

Early start of tuberculosis treatment is the key to successful recovery.

Who can contract tuberculosis? 

  • Anyone can contract tuberculosis, but some people are more vulnerable to the disease, namely: 
  • persons who have regular contacts with tuberculosis patients; 
  • HIV-infected and patients with AIDS; 
  • people suffering from alcohol addition, smokers, or drug users; 
  • people with weak immunity due to malnutrition, bad living conditions or chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus); 
  • children, for their immune system is not formed yet; 
  • elderly people due to weakening of their immune system. 

Who can contract MRD-TB?

Drug-resistant forms are usually contracted by people who: 

  • do not take antituberculosis drugs regularly; 
  • do not take medication recommended by the doctor; 
  • develop a repeated case of tuberculosis after treatment by antituberculosis drugs in the past; 
  • contacted with a patient with drug-resistant form of tuberculosis. 

What should you do if you notice similar symptoms in yourself or your relatives?

There is only one answer: go to the doctor as soon as possible! Do not bide time and do not self-medicate. The sooner you start treatment, the more chances for success you will have.

What will happen without treatment?

In some cases, patients without treatment die within one to two years. In other cases, tuberculosis acquires a chronic or drug-resistant form. If not treated, a patient with chronic tuberculosis releases MBT for many years and infects people around them. Exacerbation of tuberculosis is accompanied by high temperature and painful cough with blood spitting. Therefore, quality of life worsens significantly.

What tests allow establishing the diagnosis?

Main tests include doctor’s examination, microscopic investigation of sputum, and X-ray examination of thoracic organs. The scope of examination is determined by the doctor. Your task is to address him/her timely.

How is tuberculosis treated?

There are special antituberculosis remedies.

A doctor prescribes to a tuberculosis patient a combination of several drugs that supplement each other. A course of tuberculosis treatment lasts not less than six months, and, in the case of multi-drug resistant form – not less than twenty – twenty-four months.

The most important thing in the course of treatment is to strictly observe all prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor and never interrupt the treatment.

Tuberculosis does not care about the social status and is equally dangerous for everyone.

There are anti-tuberculosis programs and effective medications.

Treatment of tuberculosis should start as soon as possible to achieve the result quicker and easier.

Treatment by antituberculosis drugs is free of charge in Ukraine.

Guiding Documents

Countering HIV / AIDS in Ukraine is one of the priorities of the state policy in the field of healthcare and social development, as well as a subject of international liabilities.

According to WHO / UNAIDS, Ukraine continues to be a region with high HIV prevalence in Central Europe and East Asia. Analysis of the situation with HIV / AIDS epidemic testifies to the fact that the epidemic control is not implemented to the full extent:
 

  • only every second person infected with HIV is aware of their positive status and addresses a medical establishment; 
  • there is a high percentage of positive results among blood donors, especially primary ones; 
  • the proportion of children with congenital HIV infection is not decreasing; 
  • increasingly stronger epidemic impact is related to the highly stigmatized group of men who have sex with men. 

It is particularly menacing that people living with HIV tend to address for medical help tardily; this results in late detection of AIDS and associated forms of TB / HIV, which is the reason for high mortality among patients. The above facts attest to the conclusion concerning the lack of comprehensiveness in approaches combining prevention and treatment programs at the national and regional levels into a single efficient response system.

For a better awareness of your health issues important to get acquainted with the guidance documents in this area.

Why is it important to know these documents?

  • In order to know who people should address in case of need;
  • To know their own rights and responsibilities and those of their loved ones and be able to protect them;
  • For professionals – to carry out their duties in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine and best international practices and standards.

Today key guiding documents in the fight against the HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ukraine, which should be familiarized to individuals and profile organics, are:

The Laws of Ukraine:

          Decrees of the President

          Resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine

The key guideline documents for counteracting the HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ukraine for physicians and specialized organizations are:

Protocols and standards

Orders of the Ministry of Healthcare

         Accounting and Reporting

* This article uses material from the website of the Center for Public Health of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

What is Hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections?

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) that damages liver resulting in its inflammation.

Hepatitis B virus influences the functions of the liver replicating in its cells that are called hepatocytes. Hepatitis B can be acute (self-limited) or chronic (long-term). Patients with self-limited infection recover in three weeks or months.

Over 95% of patients who were infected by the virus in the adulthood make a full recovery and develop a protective immunity against the virus. However, this probability drops to 30% in smaller children, and only 5% of newborns that were  infected by their mother in the process of childbirth get rid of the virus. With a 40% probability, these people will die of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. 70% of those infected in the age from 1 to 7 will discard the infection.

According to the estimates, 350 million people of the world were infected in 2004. National and regional spread varies from 10% in Asia to less than 0.5% in the USA and Northern Europe. Ways of contagion include vertical transmission (at birth), horizontal transmission in the early years of life (bites, injuries, and sanitary habits), and horizontal transmission in adulthood (sexual contacts, intravenous injection of preparations).

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) that damages mainly the liver. Infection is often asymptomatic, however, chronic infection leads to fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis or liver cancer (hepatocarcinoma). Transmission takes place parenterally due to virus penetration into blood during intravenous injection of drugs or blood transfusion because of using poorly sterilized medical accessories. The virus is preserved in the liver of about 85% of infected people. Usually, hepatitis C is treated by long-term combined anti-virus therapy, and 50-80% of people undergoing such treatment recover.

According to some estimates, 130-170 million people in the world are infected by hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection may cause fibrosis, and in several years - cirrhosis. If cirrhosis progresses, liver failure occurs, and cancer/cirrhosis of liver may develop. Dilatation of esophagus and stomach veins may cause fatal bleeding.

Pegylated interferon and ribavirin are the standard HCV medications. Patients with cirrhosis or liver cancer require liver transplantation, however, the virus usually recurs after transplantation.

What are sexually transmitted infections and how are they transmitted?

STIs, which are caused by 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites, are usually transmitted during sexual contacts, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

Some STIs may be transmitted through skin sexual contact. Microorganisms causing STIs may also be transmitted in the course of blood product transfusion and tissue transplantation. Many STIs, including  chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, HIV, HPV, HSV-2, and syphilis may be transmitted from the mother to the child during pregnancy and childbearing.

A person may have STIs without any manifest symptoms. Therefore, the term "sexually transmitted infection" is broader than the term "sexually transmitted disease" (STD). General symptoms of STDs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.

The highest incidence is connected with eight out of over 30 known pathogens that are transmitted in the course of sexual contacts. Today, 4 out of 8 of these infections can be treated. These are syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydiosis, and trichomoniasis. The other four, such as hepatitis B, herpes, HIV, and HPV are viral diseases that cannot be cured, but treatment may decrease their influence.

Treatment of STIs

At present, some STIs can be effectively treated.

Three bacterial STIs (chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, and syphilis), and one parasitic STI (trichomoniasis) can, as a rule, be treated using effective one-dose antibiotics.

What concerns herpes and HIV, most effective medications here include antiretroviral agents that can mitigate the course of the disease, but they cannot cure it.

What concerns hepatitis B, there is immunomodulator (interferon) and antiretroviral agents that help fight the virus and slow down the destruction of the liver.

The resistance of STIs to antibiotics has grown dramatically over the last years limiting treatment options. The appearance of  gonorrhea with reduced sensitivity to the “last line” therapy (oral and injectional cephalosporins) accompanied by  resistance to antimicrobial agents is already manifested in regard to penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and macrolides, and caused the fact that gonococcus became a microorganism with multiple drug resistance. The resistance of STIs to antimicrobial agents is not that spread, but it does exist, which makes prevention and immediate treatment critical.

Vaccines and other biomedical measures

There are safe and effective vaccines against two STIs – hepatitis B and human papilloma virus (HPV). These vaccines are a great achievement in the area of STI prevention. Hepatitis B vaccine is included into the program of child immunization in 93% of countries. According to the estimates, it has already prevented 1.3 lethal cases caused by chronic liver disease and cancer.

HPV vaccine is available as a part of regular immunization programs in 45 countries, the majority of which are countries with the high and medium level of income. In the next decade, the HPV vaccine may prevent more than 4 million deaths of women in countries with low and medium income level, which have the highest incidence of cervical cancer, on condition that 70% of the population will be vaccinated.

A certain success has been reached in research aimed at the creation of herpes and HIV vaccines, however, there are no acceptable vaccines against these diseases yet. Vaccines against chlamydiosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis are being developed.

Partners

 

Need to talk to us

Phone: +38 (044) 569 28 52
Fax: +38 (044) 569 28 52
Staronavodnickaya 13A st., office 35.

Email: aids-institute@aids-institute.org

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