The main thing about HIV / AIDS

HIV / AIDS prevention becomes easier when you know more about the nature of disease.

AIDS is described as a plague of the twentieth century, but in the 21st century it threatens the existence of mankind. Despite the constant work on the creation of drugs that would help completely get rid of the disease, the comforting result is still not enough.

That is why the main task of each person is prevention.

HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus, and AIDS is a complex reaction of the organism to an infectious disease that develops. Getting into the human body, the DNA of the virus comes in contact with the DNA of the host. When the immune system begins to produce antibodies, the virus actively mutated. HIV is an initial disease, and AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.

HIV is contained in human biological fluids: blood (including menstrual), sperm, vaginal secretions, and also in maternal milk. Infection occurs only when these liquids enter the body.

The main ways of HIV transmission are:

  • Unprotected sex
  • Sharing tools for injection. Very rarely, HIV transmission occurs as a result of occupational injuries in health care workers (needle shot or cut by scalpel).
  • From mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
    Stages of HIV infection:
  • Asymptomatic stage (duration from 3 to 15 years): a person is clinically healthy, but due to the presence of HIV in the body is able to infect others.
  • Stage of generalized lymphadenopathy. There is a steady increase in lymph nodes in different parts of the human body for at least 3 months.
  • Stage of AIDS-Associated Complex. Reduces body mass, chronic fatigue, drowsiness, nocturnal sweating, fever, itching of the skin and mucous membranes, including the eyes, increase in the spleen.
  • The stage is actually AIDS. With a gradual decrease in immunity there is a defeat of vital systems of the human body with concomitant diseases.

In Ukraine, people usually die from tuberculosis, pneumonia and cancer-induced tumors caused by AIDS. Even if an HIV-positive person feels well, the presence of HIV in her body means that there will eventually be a vulnerability to infections that people with intact immune systems can easily cope with.

Therefore, it is vital for HIV-positive people to take care of their own health: to abandon substances that suppress the immune system (tobacco, alcohol / drugs), to avoid stress, to engage in sports, to eat properly, to be observed regularly by a doctor in the local AIDS center, and also, if necessary, to start special treatment on time.

The basis for HIV / AIDS prevention is a healthy lifestyle, respect for personal hygiene rules, and the protection of sexual relations, which is facilitated by the full awareness of the population about HIV infection and the mechanisms for its transmission.

According to the legislation of Ukraine, anyone can go through voluntary testing for HIV. Before and after the examination, a specialist is being consulted.

You can learn more about it here.

The methodical manual for the prevention of tuberculosis already performs its functions

The Directorate of the International Institute of HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis sincerely congratulates all personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine on the Day of Defender of Ukraine. We are grateful for your dignity and patriotism, public activity and dedication and love for Ukraine.

Taking this opportunity we would like to inform you that the first copy of manual on the prevention of tuberculosis has already been received by the personnel of two military mobile hospitals performing tasks in the area of the United forces operation.

The booklet provides brief information abought healthy individuals avoid infection with a TB agent and briefly describes the current presentation of tuberculosis epidemiology. This information will be useful for patients and their relatives and staff conducting controlled outpatient treatment.

Opportunistic infections: prevention and diagnosis

The Human Immunodeficiency virus does not lead to a lethal consequence in an HIV-infected person. It strikes and gradually destroys cells of the human immune system that protect the body from infections. HIV leads to the development of AIDS for 8-10 years. As a result, a complex of diseases is formed that develop as a result of the destruction of the immune system. These diseases are caused by infections that called opportunistic infections. 

Opportunistic infections - medical term that refers to infectious diseases caused by microorganisms that are usually not able to cause the disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can develop in people with impaired immunity, for example, in HIV infected people. 

Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections (OI) is an important component of comprehensive medical care for people with HIV and is carried out by all units of medical care in accordance with the possibilities and profile of a medical institution.

The Center of Public Health of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine notes the following features of the course of opportunistic infections:

- dissemination of the pathogen with its definition in various organs;
- poorly subjected to specific therapy, often relapsed;
- a weak specific immune response to an opportunistic pathogen.

The most common opportunistic infections in the European region and in Ukraine are: tuberculosis, bacterial infections, pneumonia, herpes infections (peptic ulcer, herpes infections caused by HHV-1, HHV-2 and HHV-5), candidiasis esophagitis, cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis.

In the case of the detection of an infection or disease that is common in patients with HIV in a person with unknown status, it is urgent to provide him with advice and testing in accordance with the national protocol on VCT. The doctor have to explain to the patient the importance of testing and establishing an appropriate status for the choice of treatment, but the patient has the right to refuse it.

The initial assessment of the patient's health should include:

- pre-test counseling;
- conducting blood tests for the determination of antibodies to HIV;
- post-test counseling (regardless of the result);
- examination of the patient;
- laboratory and instrumental studies: general blood test, general urine analysis, biochemical blood tests (ALT, AST, bilirubin, creatinine), serological tests (markers of viral hepatitis, syphilis, gonorrhea and Ch.trachomatis, IgG antibodies to T .gondii, Cryptococcus antigen titre, CMV infection research), instrumental studies (chest x-ray, ultrasound examination);
- review by "narrow" specialists (by indications).

New methods of tuberculosis prevention

The issue of combating tuberculosis, among the personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and among the civilian population, is one of the priority areas of state policy in the sphere of health and social development and, moreover, is the subject of international obligations. The effective control of TB infection requires a significant revision of the organization of anti-TB care in order to reduce the burden of infection in society and create safe conditions for the treatment of patients and the work of medical personnel.

It was for this purpose that the director of the International NGO "International Institute of HIV / AIDS and Tuberculosis" Eliot J. Pearlman introduced a methodological manual in the form of a workbook for medical personnel with a short algorithm of action in case of fixation in a patient's hospital with similar symptoms.

The first part (100 copies) within 10 days will be sent to the military mobile hospital performing tasks in the area of the United Nations.



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