For the first time in history, the process of death of a cell infected with tuberculosis was filmed

A group of researchers from the Norwegian University of Natural and Technical Sciences (NTNU) first filmed the infection killing cells and spreading through the body.

Norwegian experts filmed the infected cells for 24 hours and saw how it die. Bacteria begin to multiply rapidly and rupture cells from within, and then spread throughout the body, causing inflammation that damages the lung tissue. The person begins to cough and thus spreads the infection.

"Bacteria work in two modes: in one they divide and multiply, hiding inside the cell in which they live, in the other - they break out and infect healthy tissues," says Professor Helen Flo of the Center for Molecular Research in Inflammation NTNU.

In addition, it turned out that the tubercle bacillus can live a long time in the body, deceiving the immune system: it hides inside macrophages, which, in fact, just have to find and destroy it. Scientists believe that their discovery will help create a new type of treatment.

"It could control cell's death and tissue damage caused by bacteria. In combination with antibiotics, this method would be extremely effective," says Flo.

A course to optimize investment in the fight against HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Due to the fact that the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is gradually reducing funding for epidemic programs in the region, the country are looking for ways to more effectively invest available domestic resources in this area, says UNAIDS on website.

"These changes are based on epidemiological and economic arguments. The economies of these countries is much better than the world average, so we expect that the region will increasingly deal with the existing burden of the disease on their own. The key task of the Global Fund, UNAIDS and other partners at this stage is to strengthen national measures and reduce the problem to a size that governments can handle on their own."- explains Dumitru Laticevschi, Regional Manager for the Eastern Europe and Central Asia Group of the Global Fund.

In a 2014 study of the effectiveness of HIV resource allocation in the EECA region, countries were encouraged to prioritize investment in the most cost-effective strategies, including updating HIV testing and treatment protocols, reducing treatment costs, and optimizing service delivery. The research is based on data from Mathematical Modeling Optima HIV, which has been used in more than 60 countries around the world to determine the most effective investment related to HIV.

A new wave of allocative research was recently completed in 11 countries in the region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Individual reports with a set of recommendations for each country are available, as well as a regional report with aggregate analysis results for eleven countries.

"We provided technical support for the analytical work," - said Sherrie Kelly, head of the Burnett Institute's HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria Program. - The data and the research results belong to the countries themselves. We only offer mathematical models. "

The modeling is based on demographic, epidemiological, behavioral and other data, as well as on cost estimates provided by national partners. The software component of costs and the algorithm of optimization of resources are superimposed on the model of epidemic. The results are intensively discussed and confirmed by national teams and key stakeholders from the respective countries. The UNAIDS Secretariat facilitates the whole process to further strengthen the capacity of national partners to optimize health care costs.

Why is it important to get vaccinated against tuberculosis?

The main signs of tuberculosis are cough for more than two weeks, malaise, weakness, weight loss, night sweats, prolonged subfibrillation. It should be noted that this condition can last quite a long time. To avoid tuberculosis, you should first of all take care of yourself, your immunity, try to lead a healthy lifestyle and when the above symptoms do not delay a visit to the doctor.

"There is a vaccine against tuberculosis. Vaccination is carried out with BCG vaccine for 3-5 days after the birth of a child, it prevents severe and generalized forms of tuberculosis in children, due to which they may die or remain disabled. Unfortunately, in the future, this vaccine does not save from infection or disease "- says pediatric tuberculosis and pediatric pulmonologist, chief specialist in pediatric tuberculosis Julia Letz

According to her, at risk are children and adolescents who are in direct contact with patients with open tuberculosis, and children who have not been vaccinated at birth with BCG vaccine. Also at risk are people of all ages with chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, systemic diseases and all conditions characterized by a significant decrease in the patient's immunity.

Do not forget that tuberculosis can be not only the lungs but also all organs and systems: central nervous system, bones, skin, eyes, genitourinary system, several organs can be involved in the process simultaneously. Therefore it is necessary to treat tuberculosis carefully, following all recommendations of the phthisiologist who selects the scheme and a treatment mode according to features of each patient and sensitivity of its activator. After all, the most terrible to date is tuberculosis with the so-called broad drug resistance. It is dangerous for life not to treat tuberculosis at any stage, because as it progresses, it can very quickly lead to death.

Note that tuberculosis causes the death of more than 1.5 million people annually. This is more than from any other infectious disease.

The story of one vaccine: how to find a cure for HIV HIV

About 40 million people living with HIV are registered in the world. In Ukraine, every hundredth citizen aged 15 to 49 is infected.

Scientists have been trying for years to create a drug that can affect a wide range of strains of human immunodeficiency virus, but success is difficult. The virus is constantly mutating, so a person can not develop immunity to it.

On September 2, 2000, a prototype of the AIDS vaccine was introduced for the first time, gazeta.ua reports. The results of the first large clinical trial of the HIV vaccine, AIDSVax, were published in 2003. The vaccine contained fragments of the virus - gp120 glycoproteins. Its ineffectiveness has been demonstrated in clinical trials.

Then they set out to develop a vaccine aimed at stimulating cellular rather than humoral immunity. However, a study called STEP stopped in 2007.

Another large-scale study was led by Harvard Medical School professor Dan Baruk. The researchers tested different vaccine options on healthy participants aged 18 to 50 who were not infected with HIV. Each of them was vaccinated for 48 weeks. All vaccines were effective and safe for patients. At the same time, the researchers vaccinated the macaque against an HIV-like virus, and the vaccine protected the vast majority of the subjects. However, Professor Dan Baruk says it is too early to draw conclusions about the vaccine's ability to prevent infection.

In fact, this is not the first human vaccine to be tested on humans. For example, one of them was tested in Thailand. It showed a reduction in infection by almost a third. But these indicators are not enough for its widespread use.

Currently, the modified RV144 vaccine is being tested in a phase III clinical trial. The results will be published in 2021.

 

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